Getting Started in Facetg Colored Stones

For the uninitiated, it can be intimidating to look through faceting and/or jewelry-making catalogs and find a vast array of intriguing, but as yet incomprehensible items. Add to this the thought that some people can- and will- try to sell you a bill of goods you dont necessarily want or need, and many people cower instead of jumping in and checking on it. If youre wondering if faceting could be for you, and what it might take in terms of equipment, training, and time… this ones for you.

Somehow, the mention of gemcutting often conjures up an image of someone examining a stone with intense scrutiny, then nervously approaching it with a hammer in one hand and a chisel in the other to tap that one blow to the stone that will start the creation of a masterpiece, or shatter the stone into fragments instantly.

Faceting, in general terms, means fashioning the surface of a gemstone in a design of small faces (or facets). Usually these are polished, but in some cuts certain facets are left frosted to create special effects. Typically, facets are flat surfaces, but some gemcutters create fantasy cuts by cutting grooves into the surface of the stone–as a merge of faceting and gem carving. Additionally, curved-facet machines are now available, and in time the curved-facet stones may become much more common.

Another style of gemstone cutting produces a cabochon : a flat form or domed top (rounded) form. While this style of cutting is used on many gemstones that are often faceted, this is not a variety of faceting- cabochons have a continuous (usually curved) surface, not a surface consisting of many small faces. Most opal is cut this way.

Colored Stone Facetingmeans cutting all of the other gems, except for cutting diamonds. Some of this info applies in diamond cutting, but cutting them takes more specialized equipment and training. Diamond cutting is covered in other parts of the web, as well as many books which may be available through your local library, and is beyond the scope of this topic.

I will describe what I consider as a starter kit to begin faceting: what it really takes to cut a stone, start to finish. I will include notes on things you may want to add later, and they will be clearly noted as specialty or in this situation, you might want… Your choice of stones to cut will determine the supplies you will find most useful, and you may be pleased to find how versatile a minimum setup can be. Of course, the sky is the limit for those of you who like to fiddle with new things to try out- many a shop has been filled with things that get little or no use… until… that one day, when you really need that one thing, and nothing else will do… 😉

Of course, this is not intended to be an all-inclusive overview of the products, techniques, and safety considerations of faceting. This is for those who are curious about faceting and/or other areas of gemcutting- either desiring to just see something new, or for those who think they might want to give it a try. This is intended to offer a perspective of what youreallyneed to get started, some things I think are valuable to consider before actually starting, and some sort of a roadmap for what you can expect to find most useful as you get involved in this truly rewarding activity. This can be one more step on a journey which could go in any number of directions- there is so much fun stuff to do and learn, we just have to pick what seems like the best idea at the time and go with it… the only limits will be in our own imagination or desires. That IS part of the glory in all of this… whatever captures your fancy as being what you want to create is the only real goal you need.

Getting Started – Index:

to return here.

Some items below are Frequently Asked Questions; Faceting is easier to learn than you may think, so check it out!

Time Required?What Angles?Start-up Cost?

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Intro to Faceting: How To

Most of this will be somewhat difficult to visualize without actually having a machine to practice on. It becomes very easy to understand when you have the equipment there, and can see how it works; new machines come with full instructions in sufficient detail for you to sit down and cut your first stone. But, would YOU want to get that machine?

I am putting this here to offer an idea of what is involved in faceting so you can see if it appeals to you. You can read this section and then check out the definitions below (if you havent already), or follow the links back and forth… This is intended for describing the general process; it is not intended to be a complete textbook or to imply this is the only information you will need. If any areas are not clear or if you want more information,e-mail me.

T = Table C = Crown 1 = Crown Star Facet G = Girdle 2 = Crown Main Facet P = Pavilion 3 = Crown Break Facet 4 = Girdle Facet 5 = Pavilion Break Facet NOTE: The Break facets may also be called 6 = Pavilion Main Facet (crown/pavilion)girdle or skillfacets.

Lets say we have chosen an almost round piece of amethyst, and want to cut a

standard round brilliant stone from it.

[1] Many faceters willpreformthe rough stone into approximately the shape of the desired final piece. This can be done by hand before

[2] Coarse grind/shaping: Put a coarse (260 – 360)

Then set the angle for 90 degrees, and cut 16 girdle facets to establish the size and outline of the stone. (On a 96 index, these will be 3 notches each way from the main settings, which were on intervals of 12.)For some people, this is how they start cutting a stone. Others may do this much twice: once with the 260, and once with a 600 lap.

[3] Fine grind/prepolish: Recut the above facets with the fine (1200 or 3000) lap and then cut in some girdle/break facets at the culet main angle plus 2 degrees (45 in this case)- these should have their corners meet at the girdle, meeting with the outside tip of the main facets.

[4]

[5]

[6] Course grind the crown: cut in 8 main facets at 42 degrees on the same settings you used on the pavilion mains. Be careful to not overcut the girdle. On larger stones, it may speed things along to set the angle to 0 and cut the Table facet to about half of the width of the stone; depends on the faceter.

[7] Fine grind/prepolish: On 47 degrees, cut 16 break/girdle facets at same settings as on the pavilion- these should make the girdle level and even. Then recut the 8 mains until the outer corner just touches the girdle. Then cut in 8 star facets on 25 degrees on the settings halfway between the mains- their tip should just touch the tip of the break facet points. Finally, cut the table at 0 degrees so that the star facets look like little triangles that just touch at the corners. (Some faceters prefer to cut and polish the table later.)

[8] Polish the crown facets in this order: table, stars, mains, and girdle/break facets. Some like to polish the girdle at this point, also.

[9]The best part of all:remove the stone, and admire!

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The List of Essentials

A Facet Machine Laps: 260, 600, 1200 (or 600 resin-bonded), and Polish Lap; 1 each. Dops and Dop Wax Transfer Block Polishes Rough Gemstones to Cut Instructions and Cutting Diagrams Helpful Accessories: Optivisor, Loupe (10X), and tweezers (especially handy when placing heated stones on dops!) The above list will be all you need to start faceting- for some, this will be all they ever use to cut a fabulous array of stones! Others may want to add extras to complement a wider variety of choices in tools to use, gems, or gem sizes- its all in what you want to do…

For those who want to facet larger stones, a180 (or even 100) lapwill save a great deal of time and wear-and-tear on the other laps.

Polish Laps and Polish Compounds:seem to be fun to collect for many of us- in the quest for the Perfect Polish, we rush into the Lapidary Arena armed with a vast array of tricks for every situation… (and sometimes they can even work out as good as that old standby we started faceting with!)

Rough Gemsby the truckload! This IS the stuff were here for!

A Trim Saw:a small rock saw, 4 to 6 blade- can be handy, but is not necessary… though some might want to debate that!

One thing leads to another- first you learn to facet, and …

THEN COME THE TYPICAL TANGENTS:Hm-m-m, nice stone- if I can do this well at faceting, wonder how I could do at cabochons? All these stones are so pretty, maybe I should learn to set them in jewelry… well, once that works out real nice, maybe I would like to make my own jewelry, because it looks really interesting to get some waxes, tools, a burnout oven and add on another room for the casting shop, right after that rockhounding trip into the Rockies…this can be quite an adventure, and its hard to guess where it can lead to next!

Many brands of facet machines are available, built to exacting standards for accurate gem cutting and reliability. Any machine made by a reputable manufacturer should be adequate to learn to facet on, though quality tools cost less in the long run: get the best that you can afford! Do some homework when purchasing equipment: its far better to start with something you want to keep for a few years, than to trade up later. Remember that tools are only as accurate as the person using them; it is possible to make critical errors on the best of them! Some machines have extras which are nice- like a digital readout of the cutting angle- and may save time, but it will add to the cost. Perhaps the biggest difference between the machines is the placement of various controls- and who likes what setup is purely a matter of personal preference: there is no best machine… (seems to me that most people wind up feeling most comfortable with what they learned or spent the most time on).

Every facet machine will have: a provision for setting the angle of the axis of the stone relative to the lap surface (usually accurate to 1/10 of a degree). Then, they will have a provision for rotating that stone around that axis: an index wheel is used for that purpose- it will rotate with the stone and have evenly spaced, numbered notches (96 is most common: one notch = 1/96th of a complete rotation.) so you can rotate the stone in precise and repeatable increments. (There is also another mechanism, called a cheater which will also rotate the stone around the axis in much finer adjustments- especially helpful when polishing.) Next, there will be a means of raising and lowering the above apparatus relative to the lap: this is either a mast or a platform… this is to accommodate the reality of getting the stone in contact with the lap at different angles. Also, to hold the stone to be cut in the proper position for cutting, a dop stick can be inserted and held in the machine, centered around the axis mentioned above, with the stone glued on the end that points away from the machine.

Facet machines will have a provision for lubricating/cooling the lap: usually a water tank with a spout to drip water near the center of the lap. Most machines also have a lamp attached: this is a big help! Most of them have a variable speed control for the speed of lap rotation, and a switch to reverse the rotation direction (can be useful in polishing difficult materials). That is about it for the basics that are necessary. This will all make sense when you get to see a facet machine, trust me! As soon as I can, I will get some pictures to illustrate these things; it just isnt as complicated as it sounds!

There are various bells, buzzers, and whistles that can be added to the above configuration, which have some value to those who use them, but are not absolutely necessary to successfully complete a faceted stone. These include: preformers (which shape the stone to the approximate shape of the desired finished product), various gauges for measuring cutting depth, some have lights which will indicate the point where the stone has cut to a desired angle, etc., and one manufacturer even has a setup to cut curved facets. If you really think you will want any of these features, you should consider getting a machine that either has them, or sells them as add-on accessories: it is easier and less frustrating than trying to modify a machine that they werent designed for!

These are flat discs, either 6 or 8 in diameter, which generally have abrasives on the upper flat surface. These are usually mounted horizontally (i.e.- parallel to the floor). The grit size of the abrasives will determine what the lap will be used for:100 – 180 Ex-Coarse: Fast Removal of Material, Preforming 260 – 360 Coarse: Preforming, Initial Shaping 600 Medium: Cutting of most Facets 1200 – 3000 Fine: Pre-Polish (smoothing)& smallest facets Superfine: Polishes/Pre-PolishesOne way to describe grit size (loosely) is particles per inch (through a screen mesh, technically)- it sometimes helps to remember this so you can remember the general relationship: the bigger the grit number, the smaller the particles. The smaller the particles, the closer to a polish.

You can buy manycommercial lapswith the abrasives bonded to the lap surface, or make your own. Most commercial laps are high quality, incredibly flat, and well-balanced; if you really want to get to cutting, stick with these untill you have a reason to be making your own (and you may- it isnt reallythatdifficult).

Different Types of Lapsare made/used for different purposes: sometimes it is a matter of preference which to use, because several styles will accomplish the same job.Coarselaps come in a variety of surfaces: flat steel, Channeled- with lots of raised areas, the depressions are said to help wash away the cutting debris and to avoid the water surface tension causing suction under the stone, Satellite discs- similar to channeled, but with grooves that look like a diagram of the electron orbits in an atom, and Resin Bonded Laps- they leave a smoother finish, and all of them should be thought of as a grit one size finer (i.e.- a 600 resin bonded is similar to a 1200 steel lap). Most (and maybe all) of these laps are using diamond abrasives.Medium and Fine Lapstend to be similar to the above, though mostly flat steel and resin bonded discs are used…

Cleaning/Sharpening Lapsis done to keep them cutting at a reasonable speed. There are many ideas out there on this one- I use a bar of Lava soap and a small hand brush (or green plastic scrub pad) to clean the laps when they start getting too much cutting swarf ground into them. There are Sharpening Sticks you can buy; use them sparingly, and they will help you get extra life from your laps.

Rust and Corrosionare often mentioned in discussions of lap care… I spin dry my laps after use (never leave them on the machine while wet or damp!) and usually use some liquid dishwashing detergent in the water for the cutting laps, and have never had any rust or corrosion problems. In fact, I still wonder why there are these references in the books, and various products for sale to address this problem…. (now, saw blades are a different matter!)

Dopslook generally like a section of a round pencil, about 1/4 inch in diameter and 3 to 4 inches long, but made of brass or aluminum. On one end is where you will attach the stone to be cut, and the other end is inserted into the machine so that the center axis of the dop becomes aligned as the (vertical) center axis of the stone to be cut. There are differing means of attaching the dop within the machine, so dops are usually made for a specific brand of machine. For those cutting cabochons, a dop is just a section of dowel cut to the length most comfortable for the cutter. AKeyed dopis merely a dop which has some provision for positioning it in the machine in essentially the same alignment from which it was removed… this can be a handy feature for those who want to pre-form a few stones, and then finish them one at a time.

Dops typically come with one of three ends: flat, cone (for the pavilion of round stones, looks like an ice-cream cone), and V (to hold the sides of a rectangle cut stone pavilion). Most machines come with an assortment of sizes, with one of each dop type in each size.

Dop Waxis more likely to be a mixture of shellac and micro-fine clay, but thats what it is called. This stuff melts with heat, then hardens as it cools into a fairly dependable, and easy-to-use adhesive for faceting. It comes in different colors, with different melting temperatures; most of which will do for a wide variety of stones. The variation is not a great one:common green dop waxes ….. melts at about 135 to 150 degrees. brown dop wax ….. melts at about 145 degrees. deep brown to black waxes ….. melts at up to 176 degrees.Note that once any of these waxes have melted, they continue to rise in temperature, and eventually do catch fire and burn. For most of us, this does unpleasant things to our fingers, clothes, and maybe wherever the drops land. Remember, we came here to facet stones, not start fires or practice bandaging our burned fingers!

Also, this heat difference can matter (slightly) if you are cutting stones which generate a lot of heat, especially in polishing (i.e.- sapphires). Dipping them in cool water every few seconds helps assure they will remain in position: if they get too warm, they can move out of alignment or even come off of the dop stick. For polishing most stone varieties, this is not an issue.

For your starter kit, a candle will do for heating stones for dopping, and removing them from the dop after they are finished. Candles can be a slight bother in terms of soot, especially on stone surfaces where you would rather have a good bond… but they are easy to find, will do the job, and are reasonably priced. At some point, analcohol lamp(about $10) is a nice addition; they are a little cleaner to work with. In these, I use 99% Isopropyl alcohol for fuel. Notice all of the warnings on the label which mention fire danger and Poison, among other things; Its not a big deal, just dont have the bottle open or too close when the lamp is lit, and dont drink this stuff! This alcohol also dissolves dop wax: put a few drops on a bit of cotton, and wipe the stone clean after faceting is completed- then sit and admire your handiwork for a while.

Then there isCold Doppingwhich involves either epoxy, super Glue (Cyanoacrylate), or other glue compounds. These have their advantages and disadvantages: no heat equals no stone shifting in transfer, but they require certain (dangerous/poison) solvents to remove them from the stone and dop. They, too, have their place in faceting; you can find this info in about any faceting book or hardware store. Most of us will experiment with them at some point, and perhaps use them instead of dop wax after a while. I will mention them in passing here because the most likely thing you will find included in a package to get you started will be dop wax (the brown stuff, usually.)

The four sticks of brown dop wax that came with my machine lasted for literally hundreds of stones (it can be reused); to buy four more sticks- about $6. Some of the higher-temperature waxes sell for slightly more, and will last through a comparable amount of stones, stick for stick.

Once you have cut and polished either the top (crown) or bottom of a stone, you have to attach the polished part of the stone to another dop so you can remove the original dop in order to cut and polish the rest of the stone. In order to keep the stone aligned with the cutting axis, a transfer block is used to hold the two dops in a straight line, with the stone in the center. Once both dops are attached to the stone along the axis, the first dop is removed. This is a relatively simple apparatus, and requires little explanation.

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Polishing Laps and Polishes

Polishing Lapscome in a multitude of materials, all of which have some use with different materials. Traditionally, they have the polish applied at the time of polishing, and do not come pre-charged (with the abrasive bonded to the lap). The Tin/Lead alloy will polish just about anything with either Alumina polish, Cerium Oxide polish, or 14,000 diamond. Many people favor a Tin lap for use with Alumina for most stones, and use Lucite (or Phenolic, a newer plastic) with Cerium for Beryl, Opal, and Quartz. There is a newer development of a lap that is resin-bonded with microscopic metal particles- (called the fast lap, last lap, etc.) which can be used with any polish and will usually deliver a great polish without scratching problems for most stones. Then, there are ULTRALAPS, which have a uniform layer of polishing compound deposited on a thin polyester film disc. You can place this on top of your prepolish lap; it will be held in place by water tension while you polish and is easily removed when you are done. There are other specialty polish laps which you will encounter if you want to cut some of the less common stones (fragile, soft, or otherwise sensitive and not likely to be used in jewelry); these are made of substances such as wax, wood, leather, felt, pellon, vinyl (yes, old records!), pitch, Prodigy CDs, and possibly anything else you can think of … these are laps you can make, if they are not readily available.

There are many sources of stones to cut: rock shows, gem dealers, mail-order dealers are listed in many magazines, internet sites (like this one), and a host of other possibilities. Most types of stones are available; the relative quality having much to do with the price. Some types of stones are harder to find; often this is because the country of origin protects their gemcutters jobs by only allowing cut stones to be exported. This situation changes often; just keep looking.

There are two general ways to buy stones: single stones and parcels (often called lots). With single stones, you get to pick a piece that is the size and shape that you want to cut, with a minimum of waste (at a relatively premium price). With parcels, you can buy a number of stones at a (usually) reduced rate with varying sizes and shapes… some will be good cutters and some will not. As you might guess, you have to decide what will work best for you.

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Instruction and Cutting Diagrams

You can take a class if one is conveniently located near you; not really necessary if you want to learn as you go. There are some finefaceting booksout there that each have enough information in them to teach you to facet and be a fine reference source for years to come. There are many books printed that are collections of faceting diagrams: books that give the settings and angles to cut various designs, for those who like to try new cuts. One of the great points about this hobby is that you can learn as much as you want without it being mandatory. Some people have a wonderful time faceting without giving a second thought to mineralogy or crystal structure; others want to know all about everything that influences the light path… suit yourself. You dont have to know all of that stuff to cut beautiful gems.

And, of course, there are thecomputer-related faceting possibilities:Computer Aided Design and Raytracing of gem cuts.

Count on your first stone taking 6 to 8 hours: this is where you learn where everything is, and what to do with it. After that, it will go faster- how fast us up to how much practice you get, and what you are cutting. An hour for a simple cut to 3-5 hours for complex cuts is what most people can reasonably expect. One of the good things about faceting is that you dont have to do the whole thing at once- you can spend only the time you want to.

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What Angles Should I Use?

There is no universal agreement on what angles to use for the various materials. We have put together a cheat sheet you canprint directly from your browserwhich lists some of the more commonly faceted materials and their respective faceting angles published by 3 generally accepted sources. Each set of angles has slightly different optical characteristics, and the definition of which is best is purely a matter of personal preference.

Faceting Angles for Various Materials

Unfortunately, to enter this hobby, it can be difficult to get started without purchasing the equipment up front. I like to look at it like paying for a large amount of entertainment in advance; after that, it can easily be self-supporting. The only way around this is to find a school, friend, rock club, or some arrangement where you can try before you buy, and these situations are not that common.

Used machines are an option to reduce the initial expense- sometimes a complete setup can be found for $500.00 to $1500.00 or more (depending on the initial price of the setup). Unfortunately, it is not easy machines to find used faceting machines for sale.

A typical new setup is generally in the $2,000.00 to $3,000.00 range; depending on the machine and the laps purchased. For those who want all of the frills, the price can get considerably higher.

Use this opportunity to check out our quality faceting rough or take advantage of our discount prices on our full line of quality lapidary equipment and supplies.

We offer prompt, courteous service, shipping on most items within 24 hours,

Other Crud

Each of these facts probably deserves its own category, but I decided against it in order to save space and my sanity.

In the Republic of Panama Prostitutes cant work on Good Friday or Election Day.

Starch is used as a binder in the production of paper. It is the use of a starch coating that controls ink penetration when printing. Cheaper papers do not use as much starch, and this is why your elbows get black when you are leaning over your morning paper.

Only 47 decimal places of pi would be sufficiently precise to inscribe a circle around the visible universe that doesnt deviate from perfect circularity by more than the distance across a single proton.

Hector Boiardi, an Italian immigrant, came to the United States in 1914 when he was only 17. Upon his arrival, he immediately got a job as a chef at New Yorks Plaza Hotel. After moving to Cleveland, he perfected his spaghetti and meatball recipe in 1929. His customers kept asking for bottles of his pasta sauce so they could have it at home, and he obliged. He then added cheeses and pasta to the sauce. The results were so popular that he started to sell the products in area stores, and later in stores outside the area. Boiardi remained an advisor in the canned pasta business until his death at age 87 in 1985. And yes, that is Hectors picture on the label.

The Quetzal is the national bird of Guatamala and is also their currency.(not the bird)

Did you know that you can give someone a rape without being arrested? Rape is a flowering herb of the mustard family, so even though the girl couldnt press charges, I dont think shed ever want to see you again anyways

1997A.D. does not mean 1997 years after death. In fact, A.D. is an abreviation for anno Domini,which is latin for in the year of our lord.

James Dillinger once broke out of a federal prison by making a fake gun out of soap. He carved the gun with a plastic spoon he stole from the cafeteria and used shoe polish to paint it black. The guard, thinking that the soap gun was real, gave Dillinger his own gun which he knew was loaded. Dillinger was then escorted by this guard out of the prison.

The Statue of Liberty is actually a statue of two different people. The face was that of Charlotte Bartholdi, the mother of the designer Frederic Auguste Bartholdi. The sculptors girlfriend, Jeanne-Emilie, was the model for the statues arms and body.

Saudi Arabia has more stretches of desert than any other nation on earth, yet tons of sand from the rivers of Scotland are sent to the arabs every year. The reason? The fine sands from the desert are unsuitable for making concrete and for use in other forms of construction.

Winston Churchill was born in a ladies room during a dance.

Canada is an Indian word meaning Big Village.

There are two credit cards for every person in the United States.

The original story from Tales of 1001 Arabian Nights begins, Aladdin was a little Chinese boy.

The most common name in the world is Mohammed.

Captain Jean-Luc Picards fish was named Livingston.

The y in signs reading ye olde.. is properly pronounced with a th sound, not y. The th sound does not exist in Latin, so ancient Roman occupied (present day) England used the rune thorn to represent th sounds. With the advent of the printing press the character from the Roman alphabet which closest resembled thorn was the lower case y.

The international telephone dialing code for Antarctica is 672.

The glue on Israeli postage stamps is certified kosher.

The little bags of netting for gas lanterns (called mantles) are radioactive–so much so that they will set of an alarm at a nuclear reactor.

Mel Blanc (the voice of Bugs Bunny) was allergic to carrots

Each unit on the Richter Scale is equivalent to a power factor of about 32. So a 6 is 32 times more powerful than a 5! Though it goes to 10, 9 is estimated to be the point of total tectonic destruction (2 is the smallest that can be felt unaided.)

Donald Ducks middle name is Fauntleroy.

Dr. Seuss pronounced Seuss such that it rhymed with rejoice.

In Casablanca, Humphrey Bogart never said Play it again, Sam. Sherlock Holmes never said Elementary, my dear Watson. Captain Kirk never said Beam me up, Scotty, but he did say, Beam me up, Mr. Scott.

Dueling is legal in Paraguay as long as both parties are registered blood donors.

More people are killed annually by donkeys than die in air crashes.

The characters Bert and Ernie on Sesame Street were named after Bert the cop and Ernie the taxi driver in Frank Capras Its A Wonderful Life

The flag of the Philippines is the only national flag that is flown differently during times of peace or war. A portion of the flag is blue, while the other is red. The blue portion is flown on top in time of peace and the red portion is flown in war time.

Goethe couldnt stand the sound of barking dogs and could only write if he had an apple rotting in the drawer of his desk.

If you are locked in a completely sealed room, you will die of carbon dioxide poisoning first before you will die of oxygen deprivation.

Mr. Rogers is an ordained minister.

Sir Isaac Newton was an ordained priest in the Church of England.

A jiffy is an actual unit of time for 1/100th of a second.

The average person falls asleep in seven minutes.

Hersheys Kisses are called that because the machine that makes them looks like its kissing the conveyor belt.

Money isnt made out of paper, its made out of linen

Pinocchio is Italian for pine eyes.

The ball on top of a flagpole is called the truck.

Barbies full name is Barbara Millicent Roberts.

There are almost twice as many people in Rhode Island than there are in Alaska.

Bank robber John Dillinger played professional baseball.

If your eyes are six feet above the surface of the ocean, the horizon will be about three statute miles away.

Los Angeless full name is El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula.

Only one person in two billion will live to be 116 or older.

Cleo and Caesar were the early stage names of Cher and Sonny Bono.

Al Capones business card said he was a used furniture dealer.

Wilma Flintstones maiden name was Wilma Slaghoopal, and Betty Rubbles Maiden name was Betty Jean Mcbricker.

White Out was invented by the mother of Mike Nesmith (Formerly of the Monkees).

Sylvia Miles had the shortest performance ever nominated for an Oscar with Midnight Cowboy. Her entire role lasted only six minutes.

Gilligan of Gilligans Island had a first name that was only used once, on the never-aired pilot show. His first name was Willy. The skippers real name on Gilligans Island is Jonas Grumby. It was mentioned once in the first episode on their radios newscast about the wreck.

Ivory bar soap floating was a mistake. They had been over mixing the soap formula causing excess air bubbles that made it float. Customers wrote and told how much they loved that it floated, and it has floated ever since.

On a Canadian two dollar bill, the flag flying over the Parliament Building is an American flag.

Marvin Stone of Washington, D.C., patented the drinking straw on January 3, 1888.

Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.

The worlds youngest parents were 8 and 9 and lived in China in 1910.

The youngest pope was 11 years old.

Iceland consumes more Coca-Cola per capita than any other nation.

Hang On Sloopy is the official rock song of Ohio.

The Main Library at Indiana University sinks over an inch every year because when it was built, engineers failed to take into account the weight of all the books that would occupy the building.

Each king in a deck of playing cards represents a great king from history. Spades – King David, Clubs – Alexander the Great, Hearts – Charlemagne, and Diamonds – Julius Caesar.

The cruise liner, Queen Elizabeth II, moves only six inches for each gallon of diesel that it burns.

The highest point in Pennsylvania is lower than the lowest point in Colorado.

Nutmeg is extremely poisonous if injected intravenously.

If you have three quarters, four dimes, and four pennies, you have $1.19. You also have the largest amount of money in coins without being able to make change for a dollar.

No NFL team which plays its home games in a domed stadium has ever won a Superbowl

This changed in 1999 when the St. Louis Rams defeated the Tennesee Titans, but hey, it was a long run

The first toilet ever seen on television was on Leave It To Beaver.

The only two days of the year in which there are no professional sports games (MLB, NBA, NHL, or NFL) are the day before and the day after the Major League all-stars Game.

The electric chair was invented by a dentist!

Windmills always turn counter-clockwise. Except for the windmills in Ireland!

The worlds oldest piece of chewing gum is over 9000 years old!

In space, astronauts cannot cry, because there is no gravity, so the tears cant flow!

There are more plastic flamingos in the U.S, than real ones!

A company in Taiwan makes dinnerware out of wheat, so you can eat your plate!

Chewing gum while peeling onions will keep you from crying!

Windsor chariot iScrub 20 CS20 Manuals

Windsor chariot iScrub 20 CS20 Manuals

Manuals and User Guides for Windsor chariot iScrub 20 CS20. We have

Windsor chariot iScrub 20 CS20 manuals available for free PDF download: Operating Instructions Manual

Windsor chariot iScrub 20 CS20 Operating Instructions Manual (148 pages)

Brand:WindsorCategory:ScrubberSize: 11.27 MB

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Windsor chariot iScrub 20 CS20 Operating Instructions Manual (142 pages)

Brand:WindsorCategory:ScrubberSize: 9.75 MB

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Windsor Scrubber

Manualslib has more than 231 Windsor Scrubber manuals

Click on an alphabet below to see the full list of models starting with that letter:

Operating Instructions ManualOperating Instructions Manual

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Labelmate label dispenser

Reduce the amount of time traditionally spent in manually peeling and applying labels with these automaticlabel dispensers.

Automatic label dispenser suitable for all type of labels, including transparent and opaque labels.

Automatically advances the next label presenting it for instant packing.

Neatly rewinds backing paper into a roll.

Automatic label dispenser specially designed to reduce the amount of time traditionally spent in manually peeling and applying labels.

With this unit backing paper is neatly rewind into a roll.

Rugged, heavy-gauge steel construction and precision parts yield products of the highest quality.

Automatic label dispenser manufactured from high grade stainless steel, resistant to moisture and ideal for humid or damp environments.

Specially designed for all-day, every-day use.

Easy to set up. Just slide your roll of labels onto the built-in Core Holder. Then thread the label web through to the take-up spindle and your Label Dispenser is ready for use.

The LD-200-USS uses a Peel and Present design, meaning that as the material passes through the Dispenser the label is peeled away from the backing material and presented at the front of the unit just waiting to be picked off by the operator.

Manufactured from high grade stainless steel, resistant to moisture and ideal for humid or damp environments.

The LD-100-RS uses the latest opto-electronic technology so there is just one simple adjustment for label length. A special Reflective Sensor sits below the label and reliably and accurately senses the leading edge of your label. As you pick up a label, the next one is automatically and instantly advanced.

This unit is equally convenient for right and left handed operators.

Works with labels as short as 1/4 (not suitable for transparent labels)

Special Reflective Sensor to detect when the label is removed to automatically fed forward next labels.

Use Opto-electronic technology, so there is just one simple adjustment for label length.

The LD-100-RS-SS is suitable for labels as short as 1/4.

The modern design presents the label right at the front of the machine, providing optimum convenience for both left-handed and right-handed operators.

This Label Dispenser is designed for dispensing standard label material. With an adjustable Label Sensor and Speed Adjustment Switch you can adjust the amount of label that is dispensed as well as the speed in which it is dispensed.

This Stainless-Steel model is designed for clean room environments. With a completely sealed chassis these units can be placed in any indoor dry environment.

Continuously advance labels at the rate you choose for production applications.

Variable speed control, including ON-OFF Foot Switch.

Ideal for extremely small or transparent labels.

This Label Dispenser is designed for clear, transparent labels. With an adjustable Label Sensor and Speed Adjustment Switch you can adjust the amount of label that is dispensed as well as the speed in which it is dispensed.

The Label Sensor Adjustment allows you to be able to adjust the sensitivity of the Label Sensor for universal label sensing of many different types of material.

What is Doming?

Textile Printing Solutions Comparison

ChromaBlast Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Dye Sublimation Heat Transfer Starter Kit

FOREVER Laser Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Liquid Lens Doming Print & Cut Systems

Textile Screen Printing Starter Kit

Desktop Workhorse Sublimation Systems

Large Format Production Sublimation Systems

Wide Format Flagship Sublimation Systems

Large Format & Automatic Platen Heat Presses

Rotary Calendar Drum Heat Transfer Presses

Awards, ChromaLuxe, Plaques & Photo Panels

Epson Desktop Printers – ArTainium & subli-trans

Epson Large Format Printers – SubliJet-E & SubliJet-IQ Pro Photo

Epson Wide Format Printers – UltraChrome DS

Roland Wide Format Printers – SubliM

Digital Printable Heat Transfer Vinyl

Ink Solutions – Papersolve SB Gloss

Wilflex – PC (Pigment Concentrates)

Advanced Innovative Technologies – AIT

Discovering Direct-to-Garment (DTG) Printing

Introduction to Graphics Software for Printing

Learn the Secrets of Successful Sublimation

Textile Printing Solutions Comparison

ChromaBlast Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Dye Sublimation Heat Transfer Starter Kit

FOREVER Laser Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Liquid Lens Doming Print & Cut Systems

Textile Screen Printing Starter Kit

Desktop Workhorse Sublimation Systems

Large Format Production Sublimation Systems

Wide Format Flagship Sublimation Systems

Large Format & Automatic Platen Heat Presses

Rotary Calendar Drum Heat Transfer Presses

The doming process adds value to any shape or size non porous material by coating the surface with a thick layer of polyurethane resin up to approximately 4mm in height. Polyurethane resin is a very durable, tough, long lasting product which cannot be easily scratched or dented. In addition a good quality resin will not yellow when exposed to UV and should present no health and safety issues both in production and final application of the cured domed object.

Doming enhances the look and feel of a product and has many applications across different market sectors such as:

Typically a polyester or vinyl based self adhesive label is printed and cut to shape and size, domed with polyurethane resin then applied to a wide range of promotional products. From pin badges, id badges, key chains, pens, cufflinks, leather goods etc there are 100s of products which can be used to promote a companies brand, product or service.

You will see many consumer and industrial products branded with a domed label to enhance the look of the logo design. Labels can also be individually personalized with unique variable data options such as names, serial numbers or bar codes.

Cut vinyl signs or printed and cut vehicle graphics can be transformed into high impact, weather durable long lasting products when domed with polyurethane resin.

Trophy centres, medals, plates, badges, souvenirs and gifts.

Polyurethane resin can be applied to many non porous materials such as plastics, metals, glass and wood.

See our extensive range of doming products

The doming process is very easy to learn providing you take the time to understand the basics and create the right doming environment.

Design your artwork on a computer and print onto the Liquid Lens Media using either an inkjet or solvent printer.

Feed the printed sheet into a desktop cutter or utilise your solvent printers print & cut option. Cut the outlines and remove the waste layer.

Buy aLiquid Lens Doming Kitand receive all the consumables you require to get started! Equipment and media sold separately depending on whether you use aninkjetorsolventprinter.

Using the below points as an example you can potentially break even by just 50 units!

* Estimates only and does not take into account your personal situation, overhead expenses and other variable costs. Please conduct your own calculations.

Enjoy healthy margins on liquid lens domed products! Below is a selection of products showing the approximate production costs and your sell price.

Pricing and calculations are correct at time of publishing based on research conducted by GJS and are subject to change without notice. Production costs will vary based on your printer, coverage and volume of stock you purchase in. Please conduct your own research.

* Prices exclude GST. Cartridge price includes full case discount as this is the most popular way of ordering resin.

If you require any further information on this product please click the button below and complete the form.

Congo, the Democratic Republic of the

Croatia (local Name

Korea, Democratic Peoples Republic of

Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

United States minor outlying islands

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Congo, the Democratic Republic of the

Croatia (local Name

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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

United States minor outlying islands

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Printing tips, tricks and resourcesSubscribeJoin NowCreate a free online account for5% offyour first order, ongoing discounts, reward points, access to all support documentation and more!—————Australia—————AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAmerican SamoaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBoliviaBosnia and HerzegowinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, the Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote dIvoireCroatia (local Name>

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Antique Clock

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Identify and Date Your Antique Clock

When I first started myantique clock collection, the first thing I noticed was how little I knew about the clocks I had. There are so many styles and types of clocks, made by so many clock makers and from so many countries, that I was totally lost.

Over many years, I have learned a lot. Im still a long way from knowing everything though. I have concentrated on the Americanclock companiesfor my collection, so there is much for me to learn about clocks from outside the US.

The question I get most from the comment form on this web site is: What can you tell me about this clock? Most people do not collect antique clocks per se, but end up with one or two clocks that were handed down from family members. Some people will see a clock at an antique store that would look good in a certain room of their house, and end up with it that way.

However you might end up with your special clock, you probably would like to identify, date and generally learn more about it.

Thisclock forumpage may be able to help. You can post your clock here for other visitors to see. If these visitors have knowledge of your clock, they can post comments about it here. Also, if I know anything about your clock, I will also post a comment for you.

Post the clock you would like to learn more about here.

View other visitors posts, and help them if you can, here.

There are many ways to identify and date an antique clock. Entire books have been written on the subject. But some of the most common things to look at first are usually the most helpful.

First, look for the obvious signed dial, and/or movement. Many clock makers (and companies) put their names directly on the dial and on the movement. Sometimes, however, the dial may have the name of a retailer, or other special name that was requested by the customer. Good customers of a clock company that bought in bulk could arrange to have their own name printed on the dial. In this case, look at the movement for the name or trademark of the maker.

Some clocks are unsigned. The manufacturer does not put their name on the clock at all. When this is the case, look next to the label. The paper labels that were glued on many antique clocks are a wealth of information if they are still readable and intact.

They tell you the name of the company (or clock maker) that made the clock along with the city, state, or country of origin. This may also help to date the clock since many companies changed either their name, or place of manufacture many times in the course of time. So if you know the time line of a companys history, you can tell when your clock was made. Good examples of this are The Seth Thomas Clock Company, Ansonia, E. Ingraham, and The Waterbury Clock Company.

Another thing to notice is the style of the clock. These styles are well documented in clock books as to the years they were made. Some of these styles are banjo, OOG, black mantel, beehive, steeple, lantern, iron, cottage, and many more.

Some of the other things that are looked at are the type of glass and stenciling, the dial (paper, tin, wood, ceramic, etc.), the type of strike (gong, bell, chime rod, etc.), case materials, hand styles, type of fasteners, and many more. All these items have dates and companies that used them along with the years they were in use.

So, as you can see, there is a lot to learn if you want to do this yourself. If, on the other hand, you just want help identifying one or two clocks you happen to have, post it here. Maybe we can help!

If you know anything aboutour visitorsclocks below, please help them out by sharing your knowledge.

Click below to see contributions from other visitors to this page. Maybe you can help them identify their antique clock…

Waterbury clock?My grandfather collected antiques and I found this clock yesterday in the trash pile while moving my grandmother out of their home. I know its old

Cant pin down enough info about my mantle clock !This clock was something included in an auction I recently bought. It was ticking beautifully and stopped about two days afterwards. Thats when I

Elgin Novelty Made in France ClockI bought this clock at an estate sale several years ago. I do not know the year it was produced, but it says made in France and is a 7 Jewel Alarm Clock.

Father-in-laws clock that was his grandmothersMy father in law is 70 years old, and he acquired this clock when his grandmother died at over 80 years of age, but we would like to know its history

Sessions 8 DayI picked up this clock at a garage sale, we love the clock and are looking for more information on it. The inside of the back cover says The Sessions

Found two Clock Jacks for cooking on a fireplace hearth.At a garage sale, I bought two of what Ive come to learn is called a Clock Jack for turning kettles over the fireplace hearth. Here are their pictures.

Cuckoo ClockI have a E. Schmeckenbecher Cuckoo Clock 76 G.M 1884288. It has a deer head on the top and two other animals on the sides of the clock (rabbit & Bird).

A W Miller Waterloo Grandfather ClockMy mother has a weight driven grandfather clock made by an A.W. Miller. I can not find any information about this clock or its manufacturer. There

Ansonia Russia – Cast Iron ClockThis is a cast iron clock with a patent of 1883. Tran Duy Lys Ansonia Book shows it as a model called Russia and shows an 1883 photo. An auction

1800s Gustav Becker ClockThis clock hung on a wall in a log cabin belonging to my husbands aunt and uncle. We could tell just by looking at the clock that someone had tried to

Wood cabinet, mantle clock, ANSONIA , N.Y.My grandmother gave this Ansonia clock to me. She remembers it when she was a child. That was around 1915. The clock still works great, keeps good time.

Gilbert Clock Garcia found in our houseThis clock was in our house when my father passed away, but I never saw it before then. From the pictures, hopefully you can see the identifying features.

Antique German Wall ClockThis is a German clock from around 1860 is what I was told when I had it reconditioned and cleaned. He also told me that the wood had a veneer which

Beautiful Antique Wall ClockI have owned this clock for over 20 years but have never know anything about it. I purchased it from an antique store and it is in the original condition

My Great-Grandfathers Railroad ClockMy mom gave me this clock when she downsized her house and moved into a retirement community. It was her mothers, who had inherited it from her parents,

Mission Grandfather ClockI love mission antiques and found this mission grandfather clock at a small antique store in Greencastle, Indiana. The clock appears to be quartersawn

I got this clock from a friendI havent been able to find any positive info on the clock. I have been told that it is either American or German and that they thought it was made in

Unusual German ClockI collected about 100 old clocks while in the Army stationed in Germany during 1964-67. Ive sold most of them over the years but kept a few that

Sessions Antique Regulator Wall ClockThis clock was purchased (I dont know where) by my parents in the 70s. It has hung and run faithfully for the last 35 years that my family has owned

Kaiser Alarm clock West GermanyI purchased this clock with several other items that were in a Bedtime Story bundle at a charity auction. I am a volunteer for the organization hosting

Wm L Gilbert Clock – an unexpected findWhat I know about this clock is what a guy told me about it. There is a clock repair guy near my house that has been working on repairing clocks for about

Goodwill FindMy husband recently brought home a small clock that had caught his eye at the local Goodwill Store. It has a 4.25 in. square face possibly made of brass

1860 Jerome & Co. ClockI purchased this Jerome & Co. parlor clock on E-bay. I was told it was an 1860 clock and other than that I know nothing. It seems to function properly,

No clue about this clockI know nothing about this clock. It has butterflies and flowers on it. I looks like oak encasing around it. It was given to me by a neighbor who was

Need Help With My Ansonia ClockHello, I have an Ansonia black mantle clock that I am trying to identify. The trademark date stamped on the gear box inside is 06/18/1884. It is an

Trying to ID this Black Mantel clock!Hello, I think this clock was made by E.N. Welch or Sessions Clock Company but not sure. It sure looks like it by looking at other pictures of clocks

Clueless about this CB pendulum clockIt has double latch closure. Clock works appears to be of nearly all brass type metal. No name on the face. The works are stamped/engraved West Germany

Grandmothers China Cabinet ClockThis clock sat in my Grandmothers China Cabinet when I was a child. It is now in my posession. It is black and gold with a standing cylindrical

German Tall Clock – My childhood charmer!My grandfather clock was given to my parents as a wedding gift (1970) but was not brand new. My Grandfater lived southern Germany (Austria). I would

Please help me identify this Enfield clock…My husband brought this clock home one day and I know nothing about it. The face of the clock has an hour hand, a minute hand, three key holes located

Grandfathers Grandfather clockIt was purchased somewhere in the Black Forest region of Germany by distant relatives in 1927. I have no idea if they bought it new or used. Stamped

Old Seth Thomas ClockA friend of mine gave me this Seth Thomas Shelf clock a few years ago. I dont know anything about it. The case appears to made of walnut and the

George Marsh ClockThis clock was made by George Mash in Bristol, Conn between 1828 and 1831. It was actually purchased by my father from a friend while visiting in England,

New England Clock Co. Farmington Conn.I know absolutely nothing about clocks. A friend was throwing it out and my daughter rescued it. It is very pretty with dark wood and has the look of

Grandmothers clock passed down to meThis is a Sessions Clock, model name Ardmore. Itis a mantel, 8 day, half hour strike, cathedral gong clock. It was given to my grandmother by her

Antique Scottish Grandfather ClockWe have a grandfather clock that was handmade in Glasgow, Scotland in the mid to late 1700s and was handed down from first-born son to first-born son ever

Found a clockI found this clock as I was cleaning out crawl spaces upstairs in my house. Now by looking at it I can tell that it is an old clock. I have found some

All-brass movement German Grandfather ClockI found this clock in a warehouse-style flea market in Yadkinville, NC about 1993. It has a brass German movement. Black Forest styling on cabinet.

Kroeber Clock gift from GrandmaI have had this clock sitting on my fireplace mantle for several years. I had to move it tonight for redecorating and thought I would do some research

Competing with an Auctioneer! but I won the Clock!I bought this lovely mantel clock from a small auction in Leicester, 3 years ago. The actual auctioneer was competing with me, but I won the clock.

Waterbury Cast Iron ClockThis clock has been in my family for generations. It has some defects. I have attempted to get it repaired. I can not find anyone who can repair it or

Made By E.Graham CO Bristol Conn USAThis Clock belonged to my Grandparents, they hace been dead for about 42 years and was given to them for a Wedding Present, so im guesing about 80 years

French Black Marble Mantel ClockI found this beautiful clock at a garage sale. Can you help me identify the maker and manufacture date please? And, is it allowed to ask for valuation

E. N. Welch Mfg. Mantle ClocekI have had this clock for a few years, I have searched all of E. N. Welch clocks and cannot find this one anywhere, I would like to know the name of it

Hello, got a Heco ClockI bought this at an auction. Its a Heco. The inside chime mount has a 29 in the upper right, then below that centered is 166A. The A seems to be

Victory – Eight Day – IngrahamHi – I was given this clock after my dads cousin passed away. As I grew up, this alarm clock always caught my attention while visitng her through the

Pony Express CertificationHi, I have aquired a clock belonging to my great grandparents that has papers authenticating the year it was made in 1900. The authentication is by the

French wag on wall clockThe clock was purchased about 17 years ago by my parents from an Antique store in France. It was a gift and I could never find out how much they had paid.

Black mantle clockThis mantle clock has been in my family for generations. Unfortunately, when I was young, I let someone refinish it. The columns in front originally

Cuckoo Clock from World War IMy grandma handed down this cuckoo clock that her dad brought back from World War I. I know that its hand carved and made in Germany from the Black Forest.

I found this old clock at my grandpas.When I found this clock it was covered by two inches of dust. I carefully cleaned it up with a brush as much as I could. On the back of the clock I

My ClockI am not sure of the date or value of this clock. It has a stained glass front with Elgin and 31 day on face. It is in excellent condition and works

Waterbury ships bellI am 34 and remember this clock as a small child. I do not recall if has ever worked in those early years but do remember turning the hands to make it

Ingraham ClockThe clock was left to me by my grandmother who acquired it as a gift when she worked for a German family in Chicago early 1900s. Its black with

New Haven Clock with Cherub and CupidI have a clock that belonged to one of my great grandmothers. It was manufactured by the New Haven Clock Company and I believe the model name is Bermuda.

Dover 7 E IngrahamWhen my husbands grandmother died it was found in a closet. She was 101. It says Ingraham eight day in the center of the clock face. The pendulum is

Great Grandmothers Seth Thomas clockI was given an antique Seth Thomas kitchen wall clock. I have not been able to find one like it on the net. It looks like the Savarin model except

1 day musical cuckoo clockThere is numbers on the inner works: G.M. 1884288 1892176 25-77 (25 hr clock) ( maybe made in 1977? ) The label on

Antique German mantle clock, or not?I bought this clock from a gentleman who was clearing out some of his collection. He told me it is German-made and over 100 years old (about 120 years).

Please help ID WWII ships clockThe story I have been told is that my grandfather took this ships clock out of a burning ship while Pearl Harbor was being bombed. Thats the only

Jerome 2 weight beehive pattern clockI have just bought this at an auction but it doesnt tick for long. Does anyone know the year of manufacture? Also, should the pendulum have a thin steel

Clock found in a skipHoloway patent regulator, 128 Minories, London It has an etched glass panel, 2 large lead weights – one on either side of the movement. The clock

YARD SALE CLOCKI purchased this clock at a yard sale for $25. I do not know anything about it really. I am assuming it is a Seth Thomas clock being that it has a trade

Great, Great, Great grandmothers clockThe information found on the clock is 1/20/14 Bouquet No. 52 Wm. L. Gilbert Clock Co. Winsted, Conn USA. It has all of its original parts. The

German China Clock, Antique or not?It measures about 9½ wide and 10 tall and on the front it has a flow blue or Delft style castle scene. It has a brass bezel around the clock which

Citizen Clock Manufactured by Wm. L. GilbertThe label is partially torn off on the back, so I dont know the Model No. It has what looks like 4 sunflowers on the front and two other flowers at the

Cuckcoo Clock from GermanyThis clock came direct from Germany quite a few years ago. All I can see on the clock itself is West Germany 1972 The picture doesnt show it that great,

New England Clock Co. eight day clockI just acquired a New England Clock Co. eight day spring wound, pendulum clock. Made in Bristol, Conn., Clock No212C I wonder if anyone has an approximate

A family charmerPaper label on the back – Symphony, Patented Sept. 1, 1885 (not positive of year), Eight-Day, Half-Hour Strike, Cathedral Gong, and Patent Regulator. Manufactured

United Clock Corp. model 326I have a sailboat clock made by the United Clock Corp, model 326. The electric light is working, but the clock is not. How much is something like

Great Grandmothers clockThe clock face has: Manufactured by the Ansonia Clock Co., New York, United States of America. I have found no other labels. When the face is removed,

Need to know about my cuckoo clockThis cukcoo clock has a bird on top and a bird on each side. It also has a wooden cukcoo bird, 2 women, 2 men who go in a circle, I guess. The sticker

Moms Gilbert ClockThis item is a Gilbert mantel clock that I inherited from my mother. I am unsure about how she came to own it. I expect that it was bought in the 1970s

Help! Clock from in-laws estateWe recently acquired this clock from my husbands parents estate. All we know is it has been in his family for well over 50 years and from the stamp

Regulator Wall ClockI know almost nothing about this clock! I aquired it along with an entire estate… It runs and sounds beautiful when it chimes on the hour and half

What is my old clock worth?Ansonia clock in excellent condition. Patented 6/18/1882 N.Y.,N.Y. I posted earlier but only the back of the clock was pictured. I would like to sell

Big Six ClockI think this clock may only date back to the early 1960s. My parents bought it when they got their new home in 1963. It has the head of a grandfather

Help me with my clock!My husband recently purchased this clock for me, and its beautiful but I know nothing about it. It is marked with West Germany and nothing more and

Titus BancroftWe have purchased a Titus Bancroft Sowerby Bridge longcase clock. The face of the clock is painted, and has floral scenes in the 4 corners with a small

Colonial Manufacturing Schoolhouse ClockI have a Colonial Manufacturing key wind schoolhouse clock that chimes every hour and on the half hour. It has Western Germany clock works with

Wall clock bought in Brussels – please helpI have bought recently a wall clock in Brussels, in quite a good condition, but I am not an expert and I am not able to identify the origin. Any help

My newest clock acquisitionI have found recently this beautiful wall clock on the antique market in Leuven/Belgium. A seller was quite unwilling to show me if the clock was

Clock received after my mother passedI received this clock after my grandmother passed at age 92. I dont know anything about this clock , I just know that I saw this clock from the day

My grandmothers old mantle clock…My grandmother left me this mantle clock.She moved to Snohomish, Washington in 1958 from St. Paul, Minnesota and it was in her bedroom on her dresser for

Grandfathers Seth Thomas ClockThis Seth Thomas clock was my great-grandfathers, and when my grandfather gave me the clock, he had no idea of the age of the clock, but said that his

A HAND-ME-DOWN ClockThis clock was handed down to me via family. Every time this clock was passed on, it was enscribed on the back of whom it was from, the date, and to whom

Gruber Brass Lion Alarm ClockItem appears to be brass in color and is labeled West Germany on the back. On the inside of the lions head it is labeled Gruber 69. The clock itself

Sailboat Clock by United Clock Corp.This model 811 sailboat clock was given to my mother in 1953 by her two brothers who just came to the USA from Italy. She passed away in 1997. I

Egret Crane or Heron on my clock?As of late, Ive ended up with two antique clocks in my possession. They belonged to my grandfather and he was an antique dealer. Recently my aunt passed

Ingraham Gingerbread ClockI obtained this clock as an anniversary gift from my husband. It was bought from an antique dealer in Louisville, KY. I was told it was a Gingerbread/Kitchen

Atlanta Kitchen ClockThis originally came from my great aunts estate.She passed away in the early 60s and had been married over 50 years. Can anyone help identify this

Gustav Becker Grandfather clockMy uncle bought the grandfather clock in Germany in the 1960s. The back of the face of the clock has Gustav Becker, a symbol with a cross on top, then

A clock I just had to haveI got this clock this weekend at an estate sale. I have no idea what kind it is or even how old it is. I just knew it called my name and I had to have

My Sessions 218 P 8-Day ClockI just bought this clock at an estate sale in Texas. The son of the owner said it was from the 1940s but I just read that Sessions quit making spring-driven

Clock Picked Up on the RoadsideA few years back I was driving by a house that had an old clock out front at the end of their driveway. I went up to the door and asked about the clock,

Kienzle regulator patent 1914This is a Kienzle wall clock, quarter-chiming with Westminster chimes. It uses tone rods, and has a great sound. It has a silver-colored face with black

Cozy Fireplace clockThis is a United Clock Corporation clock made in Brooklyn, New York. The model is No. 419. There is a red light bulb that lights up the fireplace.

waterbury mantle clockHi, Can anyone please give me a valuation, in AUd, preferably on this clock and any information you may have on it. Thank you. I brought this clock

E. Ingraham Co Black Mantle ClockHello, I need help with identifiying a black mantle E. Ingraham Company clock we came across in a closet at my parents home. The clock belonged to

Looking for information on this cute little clockThis clock was in my Mothers basement for many years and discovered after she passed away. On the back is stamped The Sessions Clock Company, Forestville,

Hermle Mantel clock.I have recently acquired the Hermle mantel clock shown here. I cant seem to find out much about it so wondered whether anyone else can help. It

Pink Porcelain ClockThis clock is approximately 8 inches high and 8 inches wide at the base. It was in my mothers basement wrapped up for how long, I have no idea. It

Old mantel clockThis clock was left to me by my father. It is very heavy and made of black wood with green marble inlay. It comes with a key and pendulum. It is in

How old is my Ingraham?I have acquired an Ingraham mantel clock. The instruction label is on the floor inside the case. The word Pansy is in large bold letters at the top of

Clock No212CI recently received this clock as a gift and I am trying to find out how old it might be. It is in excellent condition and still runs.

Help dating a Gilbert movement.My father found this movement a few years back, fixed it up (somewhat) and put it in his own home made frame. Hes gone now, but I would like some help

Westwood Chadwick carriage clock?This clock is very heavy, evidently a fairly solid piece of metal. Just underneath the 6, on the face, the word Westwood is printed. I removed the

Kienzle Nutwood & Palisander Art Deco Mantel ClockThis clock was purchased on Ebay from a seller who purchased it in Dusseldorf. He claims it was made in the 1920s, but Im not so sure. With its art

Circa 1950 deft 3 Seth Thomas alarm clockIt was my Father-in-Laws. I would love to know how much it is worth. It works well and keeps good time. I think it loses a minute every 12 hours.

Mini Grandfather ClockIt is model 444. It has a pendulum that may be brass. It has 2 gold columns on the front. The face is behind glass and is gold and black. The

Pearl Harbor clockMy step father who recently passed away left me a Seth Thomas Mark 1 deck clock that he removed from the USS Missouri when he was stationed in Pearl Harbor

Seth Thomas clock, please helpThis clock has paperwork that says it is a model 1309-000, but I can not find any information on it on the internet. I would love to know more about it,

Cuckoo clock?Is this clock considered a cuckoo clock? What is the origin of this clock. Anyone information would be appreciated.

German clockI purchased this clock along with many others recently. All I know is that it was made in Germany. Any assistance with identifying its origin would

Chelsea Shipbell ClockI found my clock in a second hand store, loved it and have been learning more about Chelsea clocks. I liked it because it was so heavy and unusual.

Hamilton Grandfather clockI recently purchased a (MINT CONDITION) mid 1980s Hamilton Grandfather Clock from a local dealer here in NJ. It came with Original Paperwork showing it

My Old ClockTruth is… I do not know much about the clock. It was my grandmothers, and I always remember seeing it when I was growing up. I was talking to my mother

HELP! 130+ yr old kitchen gingerbread clockWe actually got this clock as a wedding present 33 years ago, and need help identifying it so we can sell it. The wood looks to be mahogany, and the pendulum

Black slate Ansonia clock – help me?As far as Ive found out so far its a black slate (marble casing) Ansonia clock. On the inside of the clock it says the following: Ansonia Clock

Ansonia Clock Co.This was purchased as is from an Antique store. I was wondering if it had any value and was the cabinet original and is it missing a top? The only

Our Heavy ClockHi Everyone, I am so happy to find this site and hope someone will be able to help me. My husband passed away recently and he loved this clock which

Please help me to identify my Antique Clock!!!!!!Hello, I need a lot of help in identifying this antique clock I have. I do not know anything about this clock and I cannot find anywhere on the clock

N.E. No. 240K /American Cuckoo Bird ClockThe clock was made by the New England Clock Company in the 1950s and has a planter attached which came with simulated philodendron in the planter and

1880s Ingraham 8 day mantle clockRecently, I stumbled accross this 1880s Ingraham mantle clock at a local thrift store. I had a rough idea of these clocks value, and this one is in exceptionally

Help me find a value for my clockI bought it at a garage sale for $60. I want to know if I overpaid or was it a good buy. The only thing I know about my clock is that it was made by

Hall Craft Anniversary clockIn 2005, I found this clock in a box stored away in a barn abandoned in 1972 on the outside of Cleburne, TX. It was extensively corroded, and I began

French Blackamoor ClockI inherited this clock after my Grandmothers death in 1984. She came to the United States from France as a war bride after World War I. The clock

Waterbury Clock – Very OriginalI was given this clock from my grandparents estate. There is a very worn paper taped to the back identifying it as a Waterbury Clock. Not sure of age,

Never heard of this oneI have recently aquired this clock through the family. I can identify the clock as a Clarion, but I cant find anything on Google about this movement.

Gilbert Bouquet no.51My clock has a tag on the back from the William L Gilbert clock co. BOUQUET NO.51 is the name of the clock. Beautiful red roses are on the top of the

Wag on wall clockIts from the French town of Paray le Monial and the name on the top is Rorat Monnet. I would like to know the date it was made and who Rorat Monnet

7 Day ClockThis clock has been in my family for many years. I have been told its over a hundred years old. I am inclined to believe this since it belonged to my Great

Large Mission Style Wall ClockI found this clock in the hall closet of the house I moved into. It needed a few nails and glue for all the loose pieces. Looks like it has all the parts

Fathers Seth Thomas Wood Mantel Clock 1969-1974I have a clock given to my father who is now deceased. It was given to him in 1974. The following information is easily seen on the clock: Seth Thomas

A Golay – Leresche a Geneve deck clock?The Face Reads: A. Golay-Leresche A. Geneve The back reads: A. Golay-Leresche Geneve 8486 Aiguilles There are two more words that are very heavily

New Haven Mantel ClockEarly 1900s to mid 1950s Dark solid wood cabinet that is rectangular in shape Face of clock is white with 2-small whole Door is rectangular with small

Black Forest hunters cuckoo clockMy boyfriends uncle was in World War 2. While he was serving in Germany, he had purchased a cuckoo clock for each of his siblings from the Black Forest

Antique Model 940I purchased it used in 1951 or 52. It was made by United Metal Goods of Brooklyn, NY. It is a model 940. Any information would be appreciated,price,type

Carriage ClockHello, Who can help me with identifying this carriage clock which was passed down to me? It is a brass carriage clock (as per photograph). There

Tell Me What to Do with this Clock!I dont know much… The clock belonged to my husbands step Grandmother when she passed away. They had an Estate Sale, where someone offered over

Thrift store clock.I found this clock at the thrift store. It has no identifying marks other than Regulator on the pendulum door. There are no marking

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Sheldon Brown

All of the information I have on that is on this Web page /retroraleighs/dating.htmlFor many years, in many parts of the world, the Raleigh Sports three-speed bicycle was considered the ultimate in human-powered transportation. These bicycles were not toys, and, despite the model name, they were not sporting equipment…they were serious vehicles. The men and women who built them, by and large, also rode them, as their primary means of transportation.

Most modern bicycles are designed with the primary intent to catch your eye on the sales floor, and persuade you to buy. That is not what a Raleigh Sports was about…these were designed to provide solid, dependable transportation for the British public, at a time when only the upper classes had motorcars. These bikes were built to last 100 years, with reasonable care.

Contemporary bicycles have many parts made of aluminum (or aluminium, if you prefer) for lightness, strength and corrosion resistance. Contemporary bicycles that have steel rims, or cranks, or handlebars, or brakes do so as a way of cutting corners and saving a little bit of money, for a low-end bicycle. Modern steel rims, cranks, etc are of low quality, because they are aimed at the cheapest possible price point.

From the mid 19th century, well into the 20th, the word steel was magic in Britain. Britains rise to an industrial superpower on the crest of the Industrial Revolution was based, as much as anything else, on the steel industry and the new technologies it made possible: steel ships, steel bridges, steel buildings…and steel bicycles. Raleigh originally introduced the slogan The All Steel Bicycle to differentiate Raleighs from competitors who used cast iron for some critical parts, a heavier and cruder technology.

The mystique of steel caused the British cycle industry to be slow to adopt newfangled materials such as aluminum, and many British cyclists believed, even well into the 1960s, that steel rims, for instance, were superior to aluminum ones. These days, this seems laughable…but if you look at an older Dunlop steel rim, youll find a very respectable, well-made product.

The fact that Raleigh 3-speeds are made of steel shouldnt fool you into thinking that these bikes were cheap or inferior in any way…they were not…they were the finest utility bicycles money could buy.

Raleigh 3-speed bicycles were introduced around the turn of the century, and kept improving in technology over the years, reaching a peak in quality probably in the mid-to-late 1950s. They continued to be built in Nottingham until the mid-1970s, when the glamour of the 10-speed fad pushed them out of favor with the rising baby boom generation.

When a modern company sets out to build a bicycle, what they really build is the frame (if that.) They buy sets of tubing from a tubing company, cut and weld them together into a frame, paint it and install parts which they buy different specialized parts companies. Actually, many well-known brands dont even do that; they order bicycle frames to be built to their specifications, with their name painted on, and equipped with parts from a variety of vendors. These companies are actually trading companies, even though their image is that of a manufacturer.

Raleigh, in its glory years (up into the 1960s) was the absolute opposite. In their enormousNottingham factorycovered 40 acres and employed nearly 7000 workers. A Raleigh bicycle of this era would have a Raleigh frame, made of Raleigh Tubing conected with Raleigh lugs, with a Raleigh bottom bracket, Raleigh cranks, Raleigh pedals, Raleigh headset, Raleigh handlebars, Raleigh stem, Raleigh seatpost, Raleigh hubs (Sturmey-Archer was a Raleigh subsidiary) and even Raleigh spokes. All of these parts would have been made in the same factory.

The saddles would be from Brooks, another Raleigh division, and the rims and tyres would be from Dunlop, a company closely related to Raleigh.

This level of integration has never been surpassed in the bicycle industry, though Schwinn came close in the same era.

Dating Your Raleigh 3-speed Bicycle

If your bicycle has aSturmey-Archer

hub (c1903-1990s), it should have on the hub a date of manufacture, which would normally also be the cycles date of manufacture. In the 1930s, they only used a single digit, i.e. 6 for 1936. After that, they started using two-digit date stamps.

If you are not sure the rear wheel on your bike is original, the charts below should help you determine the approximate date of manufacture.

It may also be possible to date your frame by itsserial number.Note that the serial number information below is fragmentary and incomplete, and many bikes have proven to be much newer than the serial numbers would suggest.

All of the information I have on that is on this Web page m/retroraleighs/dating.html

Equipment Changes Through the Years

The tables below are being compiled by examining bicycles that come in for service, and appear to be in original condition. It is possible that some of the equipment listed is anachronistic, but I believe this information is good.

In general, the quality reached its peak in the 1950s, and quality started to go down around the early 1960s, as management kept searching for ways to make the bicycles cheaper.

This table is focussed on the mainline Raleigh/Rudge/HumberSportsmodel. The luxury Superbe models were very similar, except for thesaddles, the use of a locking front fork, and the inclusion of aDynohublighting system. (The Dynohub was also available as an extra-cost option on the Sports.)

Lower end models, such as Dunelt, Phillips, Robin Hood, Triumph etc. usually shared similar technology, though these models tended to have mattress saddles,Endrickrims, no chainguard braze-ons, fender stays bolted (not welded) to the fenders, andanchor-bolttype brake cables.

This was definitely a war-time bike. The handlebar, cranks, brake levers, fork crown and cable hardware were painted black, not chrome plated (chromium was a strategic material, not available for civilian use.) Stem and brake calipers were chromed. This bicycle has Endrick rims. The lamp bracket attaches to the handlebar binder bolt, rather than to the headset. Threaded oiler on bottom bracket shell.

Smooth black housingChaincaseSquashed

Smooth black housingChaincaseForgedRaleigh

Seat tube, vertical: RALEIGH The All-Steel Bicycle. Top tube: Made in England (italic script) Down Tube: no markings. Dull-center rims; BB oiler left side, spring/ball cap. Lamp bracket on stem binder bolt. Dynohub w/black nuts, black cable clips. Black hex-head fender bolts. Black painted aluminium pump. Closed-top steel seatpost.

Although this bike is a sports model, it certainly seems deluxe with the B66 saddle, gearcase, Dynohub with front and rear lights, AND a Raleigh Industries kickstand!

Smooth black housingChaincaseForgedRaleigh

Smooth grey housingChaincaseForgedRaleigh

solderedChaincase brazeonForgedRaleigh

solderedChaincase braze-onForgedRaleigh

solderedChaincase braze-onForgedRaleigh

solderedChaincase braze-onForgedRaleigh

White ribbed cablesNoneStampedRaleigh

no ballsPlasticBrooks B7232/40Dunlop Nylon

boltedTabs for hockey stickStampedRaleigh Nottingham

no ballsPlasticBrooks B7232/40Dunlop Nylon

Ribbed black housing2StampedRaleigh logo not serviceable

with reflectorsPlastic32/40Dunlop Nylon

Coffee color w/bronze head tube, bronze panel on seat tube. Chainguard encircles chainring, bolted to tapped hole under bottom bracket. Frame features Pletscher-type plate bridges, but otherwise is a dead ringer for Nottingham production, including 2030 label. 25.8 mm seatpost. Slotted cable stops for rear brake. No white panel on rear fender. Red R front axle nuts & seatpost bolt, but not on the cotters. CPSC front reflector mount instead of lamp bracket.

Forged, 3-dimensional design to fit round hole in fork blade.

Stamped, to fit domed/slotted fork blade.

Raligh-made rubber block pedals, completely rebuildable, with replaceable treads.

Non-serviceable (Union?) with Raleigh logo, reflectors.

OlderRaleigh-made brakesused special cables with moulded ends on both ends of the cables, as shown. These cables are no longer available.

They were supplied in different configurations for front, gents rear and ladys rear applications. The cable came with theadjusting barrel. To replace the cable assembly, you would unbolt the adjusting barrel from the caliper.

These cables can often be revived by dripping oil into them and working them back and forth.

Later Raleigh-made brakes used standard cables with conventionalanchor bolts.

Older models had abraze-onwith a tapped hole on the rightchain stay, behind thechainwheel, to secure a fullchaincase. For the U.S. market, the chaincase was not fitted after (1953?) to reduce weight, but the braze-on was continued until (?) even though the bikes came with a hockey-stick chainguard.

Some later models had simple braze-ons on the seat tube and down tube to secure a hockey-stick chainguard.

Older models had forged frontfork ends, which are 3-dimensional, and are round where they fit into the end of the fork blade. These fork ends are countersunk on the outer surface, to accommodate the old-style axle nuts which had a shoulder that fit through the washer. The shoulder provided secondarywheel retention.

Later models had flat, stamped fork ends, fitted intodomed and slottedfork blades.

Older models had rubber block pedals made in the Raleigh factory in Nottingham. Raleigh was the last bicycle maker to make its own pedals. They were very high quality, and were completely rebuildable. Raleigh used to even offer replacement rubber blocks. They came in two lengths, the longer size coming on gents bicycles, the shorter on ladys models.

In the late 1960s, as a cost-cutting move, Raleigh fitted horrible cheap pedals that had no ball bearings. The version used on 3-speeds had an oval rubber platform. Later models had pedals made by other companies, notably Union. Although these often featured the Raleigh logo, they were not the same quality as the Nottingham models.

Older gents models had a brazed-on fitting for a pulley, for the shift cable, on the underside of theseat lug.

Later models had clamp-on pulleys, either metal or plastic, mounted on the seat tube.

Older clamp-on pulleys used a two-piece clamp made of rigid steel. The two halves of the clamp hooked together opposite the clamp bolt. Pulleys (and triggers and fulcrum clamps of this era used special shoulder nuts which had a sleeve that fitted into on end of the clamp, and had a D shaped head to prevent the nut from turning as the screw was tightened.

Later pulleys were plastic, and the clamp was a flexible steel band. These generally used a rectangular nut stamped out of sheet steel, a much less elegant (but certainly cheaper) nut.

Latest models did not use pulleys, but ran housing all the way to the right chain stay.

Top line Raleighs generally came with Brooksleather saddles. The standard Sports models came with the B-72. Early Sports models, and the deluxe Superbe models, came with the B-66, which is similar, but has two large coil springs at the rear.

Later models came withmattress saddles.

Older British bicycles in general used 32 spokes on the front wheel, 40 on the rear. The front would be lacedcross 3, the rear, cross 4. This generally permitted the same length spokes to be used on both wheels.

Later bicycles adopted the international standard 36/36 spoking, which made the front wheels heavier than necessary, and the rear wheels less strong than previously.

Raleigh used Dunlop tyres exclusively until [sometime in the late 60s]. Older models came with all-black tyres with a block tread. Later upper-end models (including the Sports) came with the Dunlop Sprite gum-wall, or, later, with the Nylon White Sprite, a blackwall with double white stripes running along the sidewall. Until the mid-60s, tyres used cotton canvas fabric. These tires were easily damaged by rim cuts if ridden underinflated. If the rubber became damaged so that moisture could get at the cotton carcass, the cotton would rot and the tyre would fail.

In [sometime in the mid 60s] Dunlop switched to using Nylon cord instead of the cotton, and the tires became very much more reliable.

Raleigh was by far Dunlops largest market for bicycle tyres and tubes. In [sometime in the mid 60s] Raleigh and Dunlop got in a disagreement about pricing for the new model year. Each company thought it was indespensible to the other. Dunlop called Raleighs bluff, and said, in effect, We dont really need the bicycle tyre business anymore, theres lots more money in car and motorcycle tyres. If you wont pay the prices we ask, well just get out of the cycle tyre business. …and they did!

This caused a crisis in cycling circles, because Dunlop tyres were, at the time, the absolute pre-eminent brand, and none of their competitors was able to make a product that was nearly as good. Cyclists got very good at installing boots to prolong the life of their damaged Dunlops, since even a damaged Dunlop was better than anything else you could buy.

This situation continued for several years, until the Japanese learned to make tyres that were even better than the old Dunlops.

Raleighs of the 50s and 60s came with Dunlop Airseal tubes, a premium grade inner tube with a fully-threaded valve stem and a knurled valve-retaining nut. The original valve caps were metal, and included a two prong valve wrench on the exposed end.

The valve caps often had a short length of rubber tubing covering the valve wrench. This was to protect the inner tube from being punctured by the cap while it was rolled up, before it was installed on a bicycle.

Sturmey-Archer right-side axle nuts have a long, cylindrical projection, with a curved lip for the indicator chain. The cylindrical part had two viewing holes to facilitate visual checking of the cable adjustment. Some time in the 1960s, they changed to a two-piece system, with a plain hex nut (the same as on the left side) and a separate cylindrical nut, knurled on the outer end. Sometime in the 1970s, they went back to the one-piece design.

Hubs with 2-piece indicator spindles, such as the AM, AC, ASC, FC, FM, FW and SW used a one-piece right nut, but without the viewing holes. These hubs used a special left nut that resembled the conventional right nut, but which lacked the rounded interior lip for the chain. These nuts were designed to protect the left end of the two-piece indicator spindle, and to allow visual adjustment by observing the position of the left end of the spindle against the end of the axle. A common cause of malfunction of these hubs is that people get the left and right nuts reversed, so the indicator chain hangs up on the sharp edge of the nut that belongs on the left.

Older Raleighs, those with forged front drop outs, used a special axle nut with a narrow rounded section toward the hub. This rounded section fit through the axle washer, and into a recess of the forged drop out, to provide positive front wheel retention.

Later Raleighs used conventional nuts, and provided a shoulder on the outer face of the cone for wheel retention. The stamped dropouts had a keyhole shaped axle opening, and the shoulder on the cone fit into the round part of the opening. Some years used plain hex nuts with separate flat washers, other years usedtrack nuts, domed and decorated with a red R on the end.

Older Sturmey-Archer hubs used beautifully made forged serrated washers between the axle nut and the fork end. These older washers are easily identified by the knurled edges. These were used in conjunction with separate, stamped anti-rotation washers, which should go on the inside of the fork end.

Intermediate models used cheaper, stamped serrated washers.

Later (and current) models use rather nice forged combination serrated/anti-rotation washers.

Sturmey-Archers term for the clamp-on cable housing stop usually mounted on the top tube was fulcrum. The fulcrum clamp held a separate sleeve which served as the socket for the cable. This was a sort of ferrule, with a flange on one end to keep it from sliding through the fulcrum clamp. It was slotted to facilitate cable installation, and had a flat side which rested against the frame tube. Earlier fulcrum sleeves were metal, later versions are plastic. This was one of the first Sturmey-Archer parts where plastic replaced metal.

The metal ones last forever, but the plastic ones are easily crushed and ruined.

Until fairly recently, all Sturmey-Archer hubs were designed for oil lubrication. An oil cap, or, in Sturmey-Archer terminology, a lubricator was set into the hub shell. The actual cap assembly screwed into a threaded hole in the shell.

Earlier versions uses a hinged metal cap, but this was replaced in the late 50s or 60s by a plastic cap with a captive plug. This was one case where the plastic part was an improvement over the metal one, because they made a better seal, preventing the oil from dripping out.

Installing a plastic lubricator into a hub can be quite tricky if you dont have the special tool. The special tool is a dull pencil, poked into the open lubricator. This will let you turn the lubricator to get it started into the threads.

There have been several different shift controls over the years:

The oldest design is the quadrant shifter, a very simple top-tube mounted lever with a spring-loaded pin that fitted into different holes along its side, according to the gear selected. Moving the lever to the right pulled the pin out of the hole, and allowed the lever to move. These are mostly seen on bikes from the 30s and earlier.

The basic trigger. These triggers had a metal band running in each direction around the handlebar, connected by a short screw and special nut below the handlebar.

The window-type trigger had a small round hole in the top plate, through which, depending on the gear selected, you could read the letters: H (High) N (Normal) L (Low) and B (Base) The more common variety is marked 3 or 4 speed.

Later basic trigger, in 3-speed or 4-speed versions. These, and later models, had the handlebar clamp running only from the upper surface of the trigger, around the handlebar. The screw that secured it to the handlebar ran through the body of the trigger.

No window trigger with clear plastic cover.

No window trigger with opaque cover and plastic tip on the lever.

An alternate option in the 60s was a twist-grip shifter (though Ive never seen one of these on a Raleigh Sports.) These worked very poorly.

During thewheelie bikecraze in the 1960s, very large top-tube shifters were made, designed to look like the gear shift of a sports car.

There are three common colors for older Raleighs:

Raleigh Parts Threading/Interchangeability

Three-Speed Parts from Harris Cyclery

Youll need a fast connection for this.

Tony Hadland on the history of Raleigh

Thanks to Brandon Davis, Russ Fitzgerald andMartin Hanczycfor providing some of the data points for this page.

It may also be possible to date your bicycle from its frame number which on early models is usually located underneath the seat lug, under the saddle. This only applies to a genuine Raleigh, not to other makes. The list below will help with dating your Raleigh bicycle from the frame numbers, but is not a definitive list, it simply notes occasional frame numbers that coincide with certain years of manufacture.

Note that the serial number information below is fragmentary and incomplete, and many bikes have proven to be much newer than the serial numbers would suggest. It appears that Raleigh recycled many of the older serial numbers in later years, so there are lots of bikes from the 60s and 70s that have serial numbers that would suggest much greater age.

All of the information I have on that is on this Web page /retroraleighs/dating.htmlDoNotwrite me with any questions about serial numbers, and do not include the serial number of your bike in any email you send me!Raleigh Bicycles 1888-1925From frame number located under saddle

Prior to 1925, genuine Raleighs (not necessarily brand names made by Raleigh) had a straightforward numerical frame number. Early years have been estimated by the Company.

Between 1925 and the cessation of cycle production during the Second World War, letters prefixed or suffixed the running frame number although no indication is given of the starting point of the numbers. They seem to reflect only the number of machines produced whilst each letter was in use. All dating would therefore be approximate.

Raleigh Bicycles Post Second War – 1966

After the war, Raleigh began adding letters after the running number series which restarted when a new letter was used.

A new numbering system was introduced in 1955, though this ran concurrently with the old one for two years. The new system involved a second running letter, added to the first, which began at the start of the alphabet.

The material above was gathered from the Nottinghamshire Archives byJim Burton

Last Updated: May 15, 2012 18:14 EDT by Harriet Fell>

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